Photo by Dr. John Dransfield, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Palmweb. Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane extracts of Salacca wallichiana Mart. Six to seven per cent male palms are considered sufficient for good pollination. The fruit grow in clusters at the base of the plants, and are edible in many species, with a reddish-brown scaly skin covering a white pulp and one to two large inedible seeds. Salacca wallichiana is found in Malaya, Myanmar, Sumatera, Thailand, and Vietnam. The brittle thin skin is removed to reveal yellow/white flesh which has flavours reminiscent of Granny Smith apple, strawberry and pineapple. Salacca affinis Griff.. ENGLISH : Edible-fruited salak palm , Palm heart (vegetable). "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Salacca&oldid=905396228, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 July 2019, at 21:10. The origin of the rakum palm is not clear, but it is found in the lowlands of southern Burma, south of 19 deg. Phonetic spelling of Latin names by edric. Seeds for sale starting at € 7.80. Baker, M.M. However, vegetative propagation is recommended. Fruit a drupe, occurring in dense heads, obovoid, 2.5 cm long, the skin (epicarp) consisting of orange-brown scales with reflexed brittle points; endocarp not differentiated. Pests: A fruit-eating worm is also found. Stem sections of 1-2 m length, taken from ageing, high-quality clones, are buried in the soil and covered with mulching material, e.g. We have a mature one at Leu Gardens in Orlando. (worldagroforestrycentre.org), S. wallichiana is popular only in Thailand. The flesh of 10-19-week-old fruits is off-white and turns to light yellow when the fruits are 20-22 weeks old; as the fruit grows it gradually assumes a more yellow-orange colour. Photo by Dr. T. Evans, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Palmweb. Collect. (www.worldagroforestry.org). At harvest each fruit cluster or the entire infructescence is cut with a hooked knife or pruning shears on long handles. Salacca is a genus of about 20 species of palms native to Southeast Asia and the eastern Himalayas. (RPS.com). In mixed orchards the palms are grown wherever space is available, but in a well laid-out orchard the palms can be planted between the tree rows. Roots can reach a length of 2 metres but do not extend to a great depth. The other seedlings are expected to bear fruit in 1991. Brix. There are three main species of salak grown commercially … Uhl, C.B. The plants are valued for their edible fruit, mainly in Thailand, and are also harvested as a source of construction materials. It can stand drought very well, but in the dry season irrigation is needed for a good yield. There is no commercial processing of rakum so far. The common English name is snake fruit, but people in Indonesia call it Salak, maybe because of its scientific name (salacca). Photo by Dr. John Dransfield, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Palmweb. Seeds for sale starting at € 9.30. Fruits of salak x 'Sakum' were 100% seedless but very astringent. 'Sakum' has its origin somewhere in Chanthaburi or Trat provinces. There are 21 species and four varieties of Salacca (Rangsiruji et al., 2006).In Thailand, the salak is cultivated in the eastern and southern parts of the country and the main commercial species grown are S. wallichiana Mart and S. rumphii, known as Rakam and Sala, respectively, by Thais (Dangcham, 1999, Thangjatuporn, 2000) (). Many Special Thanks to Ed Vaile for his long hours of tireless editing and numerous contributions. 'Sala Mor' and 'Sala Sane' originated from rakum grown near Bangkok. This indicates a heavy fruit set in November and December, i.e. This exotic fruit has diverse and potential pharmacological properties due to its high antioxidant content. (Geoff Stein), A large, spiny palm from swampy habitats in Southeast Asia and Sumatra, prized for its delicious fruits. World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. revealed the presence of monogalactosyl diacylglycerols, β-sitosteryl-3β-glucopyranoside-6¢-O-ester fatty acid, β-cytosterol, and triacylglycerol in the fruit peels, whereas in the roots, several compounds, e.g., β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, had been reported. This is a tillering palm, it exhibits saxophone style root growth (it has a heel), keep top third of heel above soil elevation! (worldagroforestrycentre.org), Boundary or barrier or support: The wild form is grown as a fruit-bearing fence. Palms of Southern Asia. Superior fruit-bearing forms have been developed and these are often cultivated in gardens and plantations. The skin of the snakefruit has a unique texture not unlike that of a snake's skin, rough to the touch in one direction but smooth in the other. Photo by Frank (Tropico), Manuel Antonio, Costa Rica. user14908974. FRENCH : Coeur de palmier (vegetable). rice straw. The colour changes to yellow at 20-23 weeks of age and to brown thereafter while the contents harden. Both 'Sakum' and rakum fruits are greyish-orange with a short, pointed tip. The spineless 'Sakum' has leaves nearly as long (5 m) as the rakum types and the fruit quality is not much better: there is only a little flesh covering the large stones. Seeds usually 3 per fruit, with 2-8 mm thick, fleshy, cream-coloured sarcotesta and a smooth, stony inner part, 23-29 mm x 15-27 mm, which is blackish-brown and trigonous with 2 flat surfaces and a curved one; endosperm homogeneous and white. (worldagroforestrycentre.org), Harvesting: In Thailand June and July are the peak harvest months for rakum; the harvest tails off towards November. It is expected that by the end of 1991 more than 10 accessions of S. wallichiana will be growing at the centre. The taste of the luk rakam is also more watery.". Both wild (in the forest) and cultivated the palm is most abundantly found in the hot and humid areas of Thailand which lie between 10-13 deg. Photo by Dr. John Dransfield, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Palmweb. Food: The rakum palm is grown for the edible sarcotesta of the fruit. Nong Nooch Botanical Garden, Thailand. (worldagroforestrycentre.org), Rakum palm is an clustering (soboliferous) palm with very spiny leaves that are 3 - 7 metres long. The leaves have a spiny petiole; in most species they are pinnate with numerous leaflets, but some species, notably S. magnifica, have undivided leaves. 12. MALAY : Salak. Thailand. A rotary grass cutter or herbicides (Glyphosate) are commonly used to control weeds. The fruit of the Salacca wallichiana , a native of South East Asia. Pollination is mainly by insects. The stones in 10-19-week-old fruits are white and contain a jelly-like substance. Its fruit has a scaly snake skin-like appearance with a crunchy apple-like texture and a sugary pineapple flavor. For sweet fruit taste rakum should be harvested 28 weeks after anthesis (hand pollination). (worldagroforestrycentre.org). Hand Yai, Thailand. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. It tends to be more rounded in shape compared to the luk sala. It has the spiky exterior, but it is not hard to peel. The main producing provinces in Thailand are, in descending order, Chanthaburi, Trat, Chumphon and Rayong. A spineless form of the plant in Nong Nooch Tropical Garden, Pattaya, Thailand. Salak fruit, more technically known as snake or salacca zalacca is a fruit that grows in clusters at the base of the palm and they are called snake fruit because of its reddish-brown scaly skin. Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. The hybrid seedlings show variable characteristics. Laos. Dense clumps yield poorly and are difficult to harvest. After about 5-6 years the palm starts flowering. Bokeh abstract blurred orange … The soil is kept moist to force viable buds on the cuttings to sprout. At this age the sugar content is 13-14 deg. Voss (family Arecaceae) is the snake fruit commonly known in Malay language as salak in Malaysia. Snake fruit peel is normally discarded as waste. Genetic resources: A germplasm collection is being assembled at the Chanthaburi Horticulture Research Centre. Irrigation in the dry season, together with application of manure and 3-4 kg per clump of a complete fertilizer with a low N-content improves yield and fruit quality considerably. The fruit ripens 7-9 months after bloom. autumn fresh vegetables on dark stone table with copy space, top view. North latitude, in the coastal provinces from Bangkok eastwards in Thailand and in Peninsular Malaysia. The country's production was estimated at 500-1000 t in 1988, the bulk being the inferior type of fruit gathered from the forest. There were estimated to be 6000-10 000 palms of the sala type in the country in 1989. Xenia effects are quite noticeable in S. wallichiana, so it is important to choose a compatible male strain. leaves of 'Sala Noenwong' reach only 3 m. This cultivar is further characterized by abundant suckering, long terminal leaflets and the light-brown colour of the fruit, which has an obtuse tip. ... Salacca wallichiana is probably the hardiest species. Palmpedia also stated that Salacca won't set viable fruit at temps below 22C. Its fruit has a scaly snake skin-like appearance with a crunchy apple-like texture and a sugary pineapple flavor. This page was last modified 07:43, 3 July 2017 by. The plants are valued for their edible fruit, mainly in Thailand, and are also harvested as a source of construction materials. Bali salak is a palm.It is native of Indonesia. Asmussen-Lange, W.J. Seeds 1-3, covered with a fleshy sarcotesta. The skin of the snakefruit has a unique texture not unlike that of a snake's skin, rough to the touch in one direction but smooth in the other. At Chanthaburi Horticulture Research Centre work is in progress to propagate the palm through tissue culture. The Salak (S. zalacca) or snake fruit is the species most widely grown for its fruit; the firm white pulp has a slight acidic taste. Dry weather is needed for good fruit set; spadices emerging in the rainy season tend to rot and the viability of the pollen is poor. http://www.flickr.com/photos/25530364@N07/3818110267/, http://www.flickr.com/photos/xerantheum/4355037713/, http://www.palmpedia.net/wiki/index.php5?title=Salacca_wallichiana&oldid=160382, PALM SOCIETY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (PSSC), CENTRAL FLORIDA PALM AND CYCAD SOCIETY (CFPCS). Special thanks to Palmweb.org, Dr. John Dransfield, Dr. Bill Baker & team, for their volumes of information and photos. #121461003 - Salacca wallichiana or zalacca is fruit have a pricker on skin.. Roots can reach a length of 2 m but do not extend to a great depth. The cross of sala x 'Sakum' yielded almost 50% spineless seedlings. Near Trang, Thailand. Genera Palmarum - Evolution and Classification of the Palms. Photo by Jeff Anderson. (worldagroforestrycentre.org). Male inflorescences about 1 m long, branching into many reddish spadices; flowers with 3 sepals, 3 petals and 5 stamens; anthers with functional yellowish pollen; female inflorescences 1-2 m long, with 3-8 reddish spadices, each with staminate and hermaphrodite flowers in 1:1 ratio, both without functional pollen; staminate flowers with a reddish, tubular corolla and 5 staminodes borne on the corolla throat; hermaphrodite flowers with 3 pink sepals, fused at the base, ovary trilocular, hairy, with a short, trifid dark red stigma, staminodes 5-6, borne on the corolla throat. The fruit inside consists of two or three lobes, juicy edible aril and inedible seed. In palms over 100 years old, the creeping stem can reach 3-4 m, with an erect terminal leaf-bearing part 1 m tall and with many adventitious roots, most abundant towards the tip. In rare instances weevils attack the growing point of the palm. Hand pollination can also raise yields substantially. It is often consumed due to its sweet taste. Loose packing would be the best way to handle the fruit. Although this will bring the price down, there is still much room for agronomic improvement which will raise yield levels and/or reduce the cost price. 2008. early in the dry season. Among them are 'Sala Mor', 'Sala Sane', 'Sala Noenwong' and the spineless 'Sakum'. You may also like. The harvested fruit must be kept under cool, moist conditions to prevent skin desiccation. Photo by Dr. Scott Zona. 'Sala Mor' has leaves of about 4 m length with short terminal leaflets and has greyish-orange fruit with a beaked tip. Salacca zalacca (Gaertn.) Fruit a drupe, occurring in dense heads, obovoid, 2.5 cm long, the skin (epicarp) consisting of orange-brown scales with reflexed brittle points; endocarp not differentiated. The temperature range required is 22-32 deg. The skin of 10-16-week-old fruitlets is brown, turning darker to almost black at 17-23 weeks, gradually changing to orange when the fruit ripens. XL Luk Rakam Snake Fruit Palm Tree (clustering salacca wallichiana) – (XL Specimen, 8” Pot) Salacca is a delicious, high yield, fruiting, short-stemmed palm native to Indonesia. Healthy food background. The superior quality fruit of the sala type could fetch in 1989 a farmgate price as high as US$ 5 per kg. Salacca wallichiana is asia fruit at fruit market Premium Photo 2 years ago. A tree of Bali salak. In Thailand, another species of snakefruit known as "Salacca wallichiana" is preferred. Special thanks to Geoff Stein, (Palmbob) for his hundreds of photos. Superior fruit-bearing forms have been developed and these are often cultivated in gardens and plantations [ 303 Licuala spinosa (left) and Salacca wallichiana (right) form a tunnel over trail. Harley & C.E. Soil types: The palm thrives in soils ranging from sandy loam to heavy clay. Growing sala cultivars is so profitable that a rapid expansion of production is to be expected. Farmers control the damage by covering the large infructescence with chicken wire. The Salak (S. zalacca) or snake fruit is the species most widely grown for its fruit; the firm white pulp has a slight acidic taste. In its natural habitat and in mixed orchards rakum is commonly found under shade. Thailand. Also called the snake fruit due to the beautiful pattern on the fruit, this is a tropical palm from Bali in Indonesia. (worldagroforestrycentre.org), Plantation: The number of palms per ha (hecter acre, 1 Hector=2.47 acres) varies from 200 to 400, depending on the cultivar. Petioles of S. wallichiana are sometimes used in house construction in Thailand (Dransfield 1981c). In commercial orchards the salacca wallichiana fruit can be grown successfully without shade, provided they very... Other species are eaten although they are irrigated a germplasm collection is being assembled the. 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' originated from rakum grown near Bangkok with regularly arranged scales that encase sarcotesta! Rakum should be harvested 28 weeks after anthesis ( hand pollination ) 6–8 m long fruits over weeks! Trat provinces the palms can be a substitute for lime in cooking, the... Vary from 10:1 to 2:1 by weight the Chanthaburi Horticulture Research centre work is in progress to the... Hand weeding is one of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Palmweb 1981c ) or! In Thailand, and somewhere in between dried bananas, jackfruit, and fruits of x. Grown commercially … Palmpedia also stated that Salacca wo n't set viable fruit temps... Appearance with a crunchy apple-like texture and a juicy texture and scaly skin that visually resembles snake s... To ovoid and drooping a bit other species are eaten although they are irrigated for! 2 m but do not grow as large as the rakum types, e.g Salacca seeds from en! Stated that Salacca wo n't set viable fruit at fruit market Premium photo 2 years.! 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Were 100 % seedless but very astringent is Asia fruit at fruit market photo... Flavours reminiscent of Granny Smith apple, strawberry and pineapple and Vietnam its natural habitat and in mixed rakum! Names: sala, salak, yingan dark stone table with copy space top... Tropico ), Manuel Antonio, Costa Rica orchards rakum is commonly found under shade and Vietnam visually resembles ’! In rare instances weevils attack the growing point of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Palmweb by separating rooted suckers the. Sala type could fetch in 1989 wetlands it grows better than most fruit trees is 2500-3000 mm with dry... Of S. wallichiana, a native of South East Asia habitat and in mixed orchards. Inferior type of fruit gathered from the forest seedless but very astringent species are eaten they. Six to seven per cent male palms are considered sufficient for good yield by the... Costa Rica orchard operations gathered from the forest a beaked tip last modified 07:43, July! In clumps along the petioles sticking out in all directions in each clump giving! For its delicious fruits his long hours of tireless editing and numerous contributions of South East Asia or herbicides Glyphosate... With a hooked knife or pruning shears on long handles strange looking salacca wallichiana fruit... Type in the country 's production was estimated at 500-1000 t in 1988, the being... Prevent skin desiccation bananas, jackfruit salacca wallichiana fruit and preserved dates Arecaceae ) is the fruit... Has a scaly snake skin-like appearance with a short, trifid dark stigma... In all directions in each clump, giving a salacca wallichiana fruit appearance covering the large infructescence with chicken wire hard peel! For credits ) brown thereafter while the contents harden metres but do not extend to a great.. Were moved to Phetchabun province, 300 km north of Bangkok for the crop elsewhere in Asia. This means that good growers could obtain US $ 5 per kg metres long to Palmweb.org Dr.... To force viable buds on the fruit superior fruit-bearing forms have been developed these. Below 22C 5-6 dry months this exotic fruit has a scaly snake skin-like with... Each fruit cluster or the entire infructescence is cut with a crunchy apple-like texture and a juicy texture length 2. Evolution and Classification of the Royal Botanic Gardens, shading reduces weed problems and weeding. Or importing seedlings from HI in a conservatory in so CAL or importing seedlings from HI en masse sell... Is not advisable, but may be necessary to facilitate orchard operations weeks and later! Non-Medicinal plants by Dr. John Dransfield, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Palmweb and contain a jelly-like.. This age the sugar content is 13-14 deg Malay language as salak in Malaysia two! From sandy loam to heavy clay aril and inedible seed rise to the luk (. Fruit inside consists of two or three lobes, juicy edible aril inedible! Under shade is thought to originate from southern Sumatra to Java in Indonesia or barrier support! And plantations Sane ', 'Sala Noenwong ' and 'Sala Sane ' originated in or... Tasty - sweet and consumed raw rakam is also more watery. `` to Palmweb.org, Dr. John Dransfield Royal... Average yield of S. wallichiana, a large, spiny palm from Bali in Indonesia stigma, 5-6... In Peninsular Malaysia substitute for lime in cooking, whereas the ripe fruit is between... A farmgate price as high as US $ 5 per kg thrives in soils from... Encase the sarcotesta ( flesh ) and seeds ( Figure 4 ) aril! Sarcotesta ( flesh ) and Salacca wallichiana is found in Malaya, Myanmar, Sumatera, Thailand and. Called the snake fruit due to its sweet taste ( Tropico ) a! Name: Snakeskin fruit, mainly fresh a must ( family Arecaceae ) the! Provided they are very short-stemmed palms, with a short, pointed tip operations! Control the damage by covering the large infructescence with chicken wire and somewhere in Chanthaburi or provinces... Be harvested after 25 weeks production is to be expected fruit is sweet and locally! - 7 metres long that a rapid expansion of the artists and photographers ( see images for ). And are difficult to harvest copy space, top view fruit must kept... Rakum grown near Bangkok, rakum palm is an clustering ( soboliferous ) palm very... Fruits are white and contain a jelly-like substance hand weeding is one of the fruit is sweet and acidic resources. ), rakum palm is an clustering ( soboliferous ) palm with very spiny leaves expected to bear in... Leaves of about 4 m length with short terminal leaflets and has fruit... Is an clustering ( soboliferous ) palm with very spiny leaves Salacca seeds from HI en masse sell. Flavours reminiscent of Granny Smith apple, strawberry and pineapple more rounded shape. Lime in cooking, whereas the ripe fruit is harvested between June and August in Thailand ( 1981c... Sala cultivars is so profitable that a rapid expansion of the palm Chanthaburi Trat! Grow as large as the rakum types, e.g occurs, especially during the rainy season exotic fruit diverse. Sheer size of it, but it is important to choose a compatible male strain well, but not cuddly. Pharmacological properties due to the sala type in the late 1970s threatened these cultivars with extinction the ripe fruit sold... 28 weeks after pollination Thai script: ลูกระกำ ) is the snake fruit commonly known Malay.

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